DISCIPLINARY ACTION POLICIES
Academic Honesty and Plagiarism
According to Webster (1998) to plagiarize is to "take the ideas, writings, etc. from another and pass them off as one's own" (p. 327). Plagiarism is representing someone else's work or ideas as one's own. It may occur as a result of ignorance and/or inexperience about the correct way to acknowledge and reference authors. It may also occur as a deliberate misuse of the work of others with the intent to deceive.
Another form of academic dishonesty is the fabrication or falsification of data or results of practicum or internships experiences or other field work. It is also arranging for someone else to create a piece of work and then present that work as one's own, as well as submitting work from another class or another student, whether or not it has been previously submitted by that student (Pennsylvania State University, 1984).
Writers sometimes plagiarize ideas from outside sources without realizing that they are doing so. Put simply, you plagiarize if you present other writer's words and ideas as your own. Anyone who buys, borrows, or steals a paper to turn in as his/her own work knows he/she is plagiarizing. You plagiarize if you use more than three consecutive words or ideas of an author without proper citation. Anyone who copies word-for-word-or who copies, changing a word here and there-without enclosing the copied passage in quotation marks and identifying the author and page number should know it is plagiarism. You do not plagiarize if you "provide citations for all direct quotations and paraphrases, for borrowed ideas, and for facts that do not belong to general knowledge" (Crews & Van Sant, p. 407). Paraphrasing in which someone else's work is restated in different words, is often a useful device. The St. Martin's Handbook defines an appropriate paraphrase as follows: "A paraphrase accurately states all the relevant information from a passage in your own words and phrasing" (as cited in Lunsford & Connors, p. 596).
Keep careful track of sources and painstakingly distinguish between what is the writer's own and what comes from others. This can be difficult. All of us pick up ideas from friends, parents, and our own reading without being conscious of it. Ideas that are common-public property so to speak-need not, and often cannot, be documented. Ultimately, it is a matter of judgment whether credit needs be given for material in your paper. Did part of what you are saying come from an identifiable source? Say so. If in doubt, talk to your instructor.
Writing consists of thinking through ideas and expressing them in your own way. Other people may add to your thoughts. When they do, give them the credit they deserve.
Williams (2002) makes the following suggestions:
- Select carefully. Quotations should give weight to your argument. In general, do not select quotations which only repeat points you have already made.
- Be sure to integrate all ideas from other sources into your own discussion. Introduce direct quotations with your own words. After quoting, explain the significance of quotations.
- Avoid quoting more than is needed. Most of the time, brief quotations suffice.
- Use direct quotations only when the author's wording is necessary or particularly effective.
- If you are using material cited by an author and you do not have the original source, follow the quotation with a phrase such as "as is cited in...."
- End citation alone is not sufficient for direct quotations; place all direct quotations within quotation marks. Be sure to copy quotations exactly as they appear.
- To avoid any unintentional failure to cite sources, include all citation information on note cards and in your first draft.
- At all times, stay in control of your argument and let your own voice speak for you.
- In your notes, be sure to distinguish between paraphrases and direct quotations. When you are copying a direct quotation, be extremely precise. Note all the information you will need for the citation and copy the quotation exactly as it appears.
- Cite every piece of information that is not a) the result of your own research, or b) common knowledge. This includes opinions, arguments, and speculations as well as facts, details, figures, and statistics.
- Use quotation marks every time you use the author's words. For longer quotes, indenting the whole quotation has the same effect as quotation marks.
Northwestern University (2002) suggests, "At the beginning of the first sentence in which you quote, paraphrase, or summarize, make it clear that what comes next is someone else's idea:
- According to Smith...
- Jones says...
- In his 1987 study, Robinson proved...
Or, "At the end of the last sentence containing quoted, paraphrased, or summarized material, insert a parenthetical citation to show the source of the material. (Notice the use of brackets to mark a change in the wording of the original.)" (Some Tips section, 3).
Sometimes writers do not recognize when their use of other writers' ideas constitutes plagiarism. Versions of the following source can help you see the difference between acceptable paraphrasing and plagiarism.
Original source: "People think principals know how to do it all. All too many principals fall into the trap of playing the all-knowing one" (Barth, 2000, p. 3).
Version A. Often people think principals should know it all. Many principals fall into the trap of trying to be all knowing (Barth, 2000).
Comment: This is plagiarism. Even though the writer has cited the source, the writer has not used quotation marks around the direct quotation "fall into the trap".
In addition, the phrase "all knowing" closely resembles the wording of the source.
Version B. People often think principals should know how to do everything, and many principals fall into that pitfall (Barth, 2000).
Comment: Still plagiarism. Even though the writer has substituted synonyms and cited the source, the writer is plagiarizing because the source's sentence structure
is basically unchanged.
Version C. It is easy for principals to believe, like others, they should know how to do everything (Barth, 2000).
Comment: No plagiarism. This is an appropriate paraphrase of the original sentence
References for Plagiarism Notes
Crews, F. & VanSant, A. J. (1984). The Random House Handbook. (4th ed.). New York: Random House.
Lunsford, A. & Connors, R. (1995).St. Martin's Handbook. (3rd. ed.) New York: St. Martin's.
Northwestern University (2002). Avoiding plagiarism. Retrieved May 24, 2002 from
Pennsylvania State University. (1984). Functional planning and evaluation of park systems. Recreation and Parks 434,
an independent study course offered by the Department of Independent Learning, Pennsylvania State University.
Webster's New World compact desk dictionary and style guide. (1998). New York: Simon & Schuster.
Williams, S. (2002). Avoiding plagiarism. Clinton, NY: Hamilton University. Retrieved May 24, 2002 from
Academic Probation, Suspension, and Dismissal
A degree-seeking graduate student in good academic standing, who at the end of a course term fails to meet the criterion of good academic standing, will be placed on academic probation. Such a student must reestablish good academic standing within the next 6 semester hours or on a timeline set by the program. Students will be notified in writing by the Dean of the program in regard to the probationary status and conditions.
A student on academic probation will be returned to good academic standing when the specific conditions for removal of the probation are met. If the conditions are not met, the student will not be allowed to continue in his/her program and may be suspended.
In general, a student's retention in a graduate program is contingent on the faculty's belief that the student is likely to complete the program successfully; if the faculty cease to believe this, the student will be suspended and will not be readmitted to the program.
A graduate student may be suspended from Doane University for any of the following reasons:
- Failure to return to good academic standing after the specified probationary period.
- Failure to meet requirements set forth in the probation letter.
- Receipt of a second course grade below a B-.
- Breach of the Doane University Student Academic Honesty Policy (a copy of the policy may be obtained from the Vice President for Academic Affairs Doane University, Crete, NE).
- Breach of the Standards for Professional Practices Criteria as defined in 92 NAC 27.
- Conviction of a felony involving abuse, neglect or sexual misconduct as defined in Title 92, Chapter 20, Section 006.01A2.
- Be determined to have a mental or emotional incapacity to practice the profession as evidenced by a legal adjudication or determination thereof or by other lawful means as defined in Title 92, Chapter 20, 006.03.
In all cases, the student is notified of the suspension in writing by the Dean of the program.
The following outlines the appeals processes. It is the student's responsibility to contact and complete the appropriate procedure for initiating an appeal.
Full Graduate Standing Appeal
An applicant denied full graduate standing to a graduate program may appeal this denial by submitting a written request to the appropriate Graduate Committee of the Whole. The request is submitted to the Department of Education, Doane University, Crete, NE 68333, within 14 calendar days of the date of the letter of full graduate standing denial. The Committee will make a response to such a written request before the last day to register for the next course term.
In response to a written request, the applicant is granted a personal appearance before the Committee of the Whole, if desired. A recommendation either supporting or not supporting the applicant's request will be made by the Committee and communicated, in writing, to the Dean of the appropriate program.
Course Grade Appeals
Any student in the graduate program of education may appeal to the appropriate Graduate Committee of the Whole for assistance in the resolution of disputed course grades. The appeals process must be initiated before the end of the course term following the course term in which the academic question occurred. Specific steps for the appeals process are as follows:
- The student must complete a statement in writing stating the issues of the dispute. This statement must be sent to the course instructor and the Dean of the appropriate program.
- Within one week of sending the letter, the student must request a conference with the course instructor.
- The course instructor and student will meet in an attempt to resolve the appeal. If the complaint is not resolved during this conference, the course instructor will write a statement of the issues and why the complaint was not resolved. He/She will send a copy of this statement to the Dean of the appropriate program.
- If the student wishes to take further action to resolve the appeal, the student may then request a conference with the appropriate Dean of Graduate Studies in Education. The Dean of Graduate Studies will review the statements from the student and instructor. The Dean will notify the student and instructor of his/her findings. If the Dean decides the appeal is not justified, the student may appeal to the Graduate Committee of the Whole.
- The Graduate Committee of the Whole reviews the appeal. The Committee may decide to: a) consider written material submitted by both the student and the instructor; or b) convene an evidentiary hearing of the dispute; or c) request both a submission of written materials and an evidentiary hearing.
- During the course of Committee review, the Chairperson of the Committee may request of the student clarifying information, confirmation of a hearing date or some similar request. If there is no response to the request, the Chairperson will notify the student by certified mail that he/she has one week from the date of receipt of the letter to respond. If at the end of this period a response is still not forth coming all rights to further appeal consideration will be terminated. At that time the Committee may render an opinion based upon information currently available or vote the appeal inactive.
No faculty member involved in a course grade appeal may sit upon the Committee of the Whole while such an appeal is being considered.
Appeals of Academic Suspension
Any student in a graduate program in Education suspended from Doane University may appeal to the appropriate Graduate Committee of the Whole for readmission.
- The student must submit a written request to the Committee asking to be readmitted. This request must include the reasons the Committee should consider him/her for readmission.
- The student must be prepared to appear before the Committee, if such an appearance is requested, to answer any questions the Committee may have about the student's potential to continue in the graduate program and to maintain his/her good academic standing in the future.
- The student will be notified in writing of the decision of the Committee of the Whole.
The appeals process for suspension must be initiated by the end of the term in which the student was suspended.
Appeals for Readmission Following Dismissal
A graduate student may be dismissed from Doane University when the appeal process for suspension has been completed and the Committee of the Whole has denied the appeal for readmission. These students are notified of their dismissal in writing by the Vice President for Academic Affairs.
Any student in a graduate program in Education dismissed from that program may appeal to the appropriate Graduate Committee of the Whole for the purpose of seeking readmission to their program. The appeals process for readmission following dismissal may not be initiated until one full academic year has elapsed following the student's dismissal from the graduate program.
The steps for appeal are as follows:
- The student must submit a written request to the Committee asking to be readmitted to the graduate program on a provisional status.
- The student must submit to the Committee written evidence that a radical improvement in his/her ability to complete graduate-level work or to rectify the conduct that led to the dismissal.
- The student must be prepared to appear before the Committee to answer any questions the Committee may have regarding the student's ability to perform satisfactorily at the graduate level or questions related to issues of ethical behavior leading to dismissal.
- The student will be notified by the Committee of the Whole of their decision regarding readmission on a provisional status and the requirements for the student's return to good academic standing.